Hypertension (arterial hypertension) is one of the most common medical problems. High blood pressure in the body vessels is called hypertension (from the Greek word hyper – “super” and the Latin word tendere – “stretch”) or hypertension (from the Greek words hyper and tonus – “hypertension”). Thus, the words “hypertension” and “hypertension” are synonyms.
The insidiousness of arterial hypertension (hypertension) also lies in the fact that it often runs asymptomatically, even with high blood pressure figures (BP), the patient’s well-being may remain good. This is the reason for the negative attitude towards medical advice.
But good health with high blood pressure (hypertension) does not protect the patient from the terrible complications of this disease. Every patient suffering from arterial hypertension (hypertension) should understand that prolonged and sustained reduction of blood pressure improves the quality of life and reduces the risk of vascular complications: by 45% – the number of strokes and by 38% – the number of myocardial infarcts.
SIGNS OF HYPERTENSION
The main symptom of arterial hypertension is high blood pressure. During the progression of the disease may appear symptoms that indicate the affected state of other organs: headaches and frequent dizziness, swelling, seizures of suffocation, shortness of breath, nausea;
The first stage of hypertension diagnostics is the implementation of several blood pressure measurements, analysis of the disease history.
The second stage – laboratory and instrumental – includes: general urine analysis; general blood analysis; electrocardiogram; ultrasonic heart examination; ultrasonic examination of other organs (kidneys, adrenal glands, vessels); ophthalmology.
Evaluation of the general cardiovascular risk.
During the examination of patients with arterial hypertension it is necessary to assess the existing risk factors, identify associated clinical conditions and determine the degree of lesion of the target organs. This stage of work with the patient is the most fundamental, as it determines the treatment strategy. The amount of treatment that should be given to the patient should correspond to the risk group to which the patient belongs. Risk stratification criteria are used to determine the risk group for cardiovascular complications. According to these criteria, all patients with arterial hypertension can be classified as one of the four risk groups for cardiovascular disasters. Such differentiation into risk groups is necessary to choose the optimal tactics for managing patients with arterial hypertension and a measure to prevent further complications. These factors and the degree of your risk can be determined after consultation with a cardiologist.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HYPERTENSION
Prevention of hypertension consists in lifestyle correction, preventive checkups to identify possible failures that are prerequisites for hypertension, and their surgical treatment.
Medical treatment includes taking several groups of medicines. They can be prescribed: ACE inhibitors; calcium antagonists; angiotensin receptor antagonists 2; diuretics; beta-adrenorcers; alpha-adrenoblockers; central action agents; combined preparations (combination of several substances in one preparation).